Though largely understudied to date, the regions in the western Balkans inhabited by Albanian speakers were afflicted by World War I in distinctive ways. The parceling out of former Ottoman lands to satiate the needs of neighboring political and economic elite introduced a unique set of consequences for Albanian-speakers. The battles between armies and the residual horrors accompanying war—famine and forced migration—became the reality of the 20 th century for most Albanians who were exposed to a violence that ripped apart the largely peasant population.
The resulting chaos invariably transformed the region into a contested area inhabited by a politically scattered population whose future would be increasingly decided by the outsiders charged with occupying Albanian lands between and These occupations often required considerable collaboration with selected local intermediaries, some of whom became the dominant political actors in Albanian lands for much of the 20 th century.
The collapse of two major empires at the end of had a considerable impact on the inhabitants of the Balkans.
List of wars involving Albania
In Albanian populated lands, the Christian and Muslim population witnessed a period of territorial disaggregation between and that pitted the interests of locals against each other as their desires to live in a unified state remained of little consequence in the larger world.
A backwater in this period, Albanian-inhabited lands experienced an inimitable form of violence brought on by the war. In this respect, these lands deserve close inspection as the disparate processes of administering Albanians-under-occupation both took very different forms than elsewhere and shaped the long-term fortunes of the entire Balkans.
However, in order to fully appreciate these long-term consequences, historians must expand their understanding of the non-military components of the war. The following initiates this refocus by highlighting that occupation administrations played a role that impacted the quality of life for civilian populations and thus shaped their political ambitions as much as did the actual performance of the larger war. One outstanding feature of the Balkans during World War I is the extent to which its inhabitants lived under changing administrations.
It was during the slow process of Ottoman disaggregation, which began in the s and culminated in the Balkan Wars ofthat the peninsula witnessed large scale demographic and political change. While it is true that such instability took the form of violence between opposing armies, this volatility also reflected the domestic socio-economic, as much as political, challenges caused by imperial disintegration.
Fundamental change came to the region with the so-called Young Turk coup in Dominated by natives of the Balkans, the ruling party of the new Ottoman government, the Committee of Union and Progress CUPadopted a platform for significant reform that directly threatened certain landed interests in the western Balkans. Often ruling through politically weak coalitions, the elite of Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro saw territorial expansion at the expense of neighboring Ottoman lands as an expedient way to shore up vulnerable political positions at home.
With rebellious pockets within Ottoman Albania fueled by domestic populist themes including nationalist irredentismmuch of the post western Balkans fell into civil war.
These areas saw a flood of force as the Ottoman state and its local allies adopted particularly harsh anti-rebellion measures. The consequences of these disruptions were clear at the commencement of war: the Ottoman armies, without a local population to rely on for supplies and auxiliary forces, collapsed within a matter of weeks. In full recognition of both the dangers and opportunities presented by the legal and diplomatic vacuum created by the collapse of the Ottoman Balkans in latea number of talented Ottoman-Albanian intellectuals and officers attempted to fill the void.
A series of tenuous political alliances formed over the next months by rival groups which had often unclear links to neighboring states. The on-going struggles for control over Albania between former allies in the first Balkan War - particularly Montenegro, Serbia, Greeceand Bulgaria - along with Italy, concerned the powers which feared a larger war.
In this respect, delegates in London imposed a set of conditions that both left a future Albania in legal and economic limbo, and animated all the regional and local actors to make rapid adjustments to ensure their long-term interests were addressed.The occupation of South East Europe had a complex structure reflecting different and often conflicting territorial claims and goals. The civilian population was exposed to various measures of repression, including mass internment, forced labor, and a de-nationalization policy, which sparked a Serbian uprising in early In Romania, the military occupation administration was also organized to exploit the economic resources of the country.
Albania, although spared from major military operations, was divided into Austro-Hungarian, Italian and French-Greek occupation zones. Contrary to the prevailing attitude in political and military circles in Vienna, a possible annexation of Serbia was strongly opposed in Budapest, as it was viewed as a threat to the Hungarian position within the Dual Monarchy. However, permanent occupation was tabled as an option in discussions at the end of July. The idea of mollifying the neighboring countries with promises of Serbian territory was considered, on the condition that they enter the war on the Austro-Hungarian side or remain neutral.
In Vienna the future of Montenegro was seen as part of the Serbian question and the organization of the occupation was left solely to Austria-Hungary.
However, the combination of Entente pressure and the promise of French and Russian support for the fulfillment of territorial claims towards Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary which was not willing to make concessions in Transylvania brought Romania into the war in on the Allied side.
The system established after its military collapse was mostly the result of improvisation, impelled by the fact that its territory was economically important to the Central Powers. In Austro-Hungarian troops unsuccessfully raided Serbia three times, leading to great losses on both sides. Belgrade fell to the 3 rd Austro-Hungarian Army in Decemberand preparations for the establishment of an occupation regime began.
The Serbian defense collapsed at the end of However, the Austro-Hungarian occupation policy was plagued by differences and ambiguities. During the visit of the German Emperor to Vienna, the Austro-Hungarian monarch, Francis Joseph I, Emperor of Austriaexpressed his approval for a radical solution, namely annexation.
Similarly, Ferdinand I, Tsar of Bulgaria and his Prime Minister Vasil Radoslavov rejected the idea of a possible restoration of Serbian independence. He suggested annexing Montenegro and partitioning Albania with Greeceor alternatively leaving Albania under the sole protection of Austro-Hungary. The remaining territory would be reduced to a mountainous area, economically, politically and militarily subordinate to the empire.
Berlin also proposed two solutions, suggesting either the total cessation of Serbia and Montenegro to Austro-Hungary, or their continued existence with significantly reduced territory, united and subordinated to Austro-Hungary.
The consistent German attitude was to support Bulgarian expansion at the expense of Serbia, within the limits agreed upon by the treaty of alliance from 6 Septemberbut with the possibility for further expansion. The first Governor-General, Johann Graf Salis-Seewiswas appointed by the Emperor in late and took office in early Januaryacting as the highest authority on all military, administrative and economic issues.
Otto Gellinek became his chief of staff. Tisza succeeded in reinforcing the Hungarian position by including a civilian commissar appointed by the Hungarian government as the deputy to the Military Governor-General.
The first civilian commissar, sent to Belgrade on 17 January, was the Hungarian historian Ludwig Thalloczy This is a list of wars that Albanian states and Albanian forces have been involved in. Albanian Shpata Family.
Support: Venice. Kastrioti Family Arianiti Family. Angevin Kingdom of Naples. Muzaka Lordship. Republic of Venice. Lordship of Zeta Siege of Shkodra only. Ottoman Empire.
Republic of Central Albania. Kingdom of Italy French Third Republic. Kingdom of Greece. Nazi Germany From From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Wikipedia list article.
Part of a series on the. Early History. Early modern. Late modern.
Albania in 1914
Post-communism unrest Republic of Albania. Art Constitution Economy Military Names. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 3 February Early in John Spata attacked Ioannina but soon withdrew when he saw he could not crack the defenses created by Esau. Early in John Spata attacked Jannina but soon withdrew when he saw he could not crack the defenses created by Esau. This eagle had carried away several lambs in his care so, armed with a long Albanian knife, he had climbed up the mountain steep, grappled with and killed the marauder on its nest.
Muslim troops, although loyal to the Vizier, had refused to carry out this instruction. Imperial Wars — Amber Books.
Markos Botsaris' band of Greek rebels made a night attack on an Ottoman Army of 13, men encamped near Karpenisi. TheGreeks inflicted casualtiesalmostwithout loss, but retreated Retrieved 24 March As a result of these skirmishes, the Albanians were obliged to seek refuge in Karpenisi.
Markos Botsaris, a Souliot, participated in battles in western Greece On the night of August 21,he led the attack on Karpenisi in central Greece by Souliots, against around 1, Ottoman troops.Stunned, the Young Turks regime acceded to some of the rebels' demands. The First Balkan War, however, erupted before a final settlement could be worked out. Most Albanians remained neutral during the war, during which the Balkan allies--the Serbs, Bulgarians, and Greeks--quickly drove the Turks to the walls of Constantinople.
Serb forces took much of northern Albania, and the Greeks captured Janina and parts of southern Albania. Austria-Hungary and Italy opposed giving Serbia an outlet to the Adriatic, which they feared would become a Russian port. They instead supported the creation of an autonomous Albania. Russia backed Serbia's and Montenegro's claims to Albanian-inhabited lands. Britain and Germany remained neutral.
Chaired by Britain's foreign secretary, Sir Edward Grey, the ambassadors' conference initially decided to create an autonomous Albania under continued Ottoman rule, but with the protection of the Great Powers. This solution, as detailed in the Treaty of London, was abandoned in the summer of when it became obvious that the Ottoman Empire would, in the Second Balkan War, lose Macedonia and hence its overland connection with the Albanian-inhabited lands.
In Julythe Great Powers opted to recognize an independent, neutral Albanian state ruled by a constitutional monarchy and under the protection of the Great Powers.
The August Treaty of Bucharest established that independent Albania was a country with borders that gave the new state about 28, square kilometers of territory and a population ofSerbia reluctantly succumbed to an ultimatum from Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Italy to withdraw from northern Albania. The treaty, however, left large areas with majority Albanian populations, notably Kosovo and western Macedonia, outside the new state and failed to solve the region's nationality problems.
Territorial disputes have divided the Albanians and Serbs since the Middle Ages, but none more so than the clash over the Kosovo region. Serbs consider Kosovo their Holy Land. They argue that their ancestors settled in the region during the seventh century, that medieval Serbian kings were crowned there, and that the Serbs' greatest medieval ruler, Stefan Dusan, established the seat of his empire for a time near Prizren in the mid-fourteenth century.
More important, numerous Serbian Orthodox shrines, including the patriarchate of the Serbian Orthodox Church, are located in Kosovo. The key event in the Serbs' national mythology, the defeat of their forces by the Ottoman Turks, took place at Kosovo Polje in For their part, the Albanians claim the land based on the argument that they are the descendants of the ancient Illyrians, the indigenous people of the region, and have been there since before the first Serb ever set foot in the Balkans.
Although the Albanians have not left architectural remains similar to the Serbs' religious shrines, the Albanians point to the fact that Prizren was the seat of their first nationalist organization, the Prizren League, and call the region the cradle of their national awakening. Finally, Albanians claim Kosovo based on the fact that their kinsmen have constituted the vast majority of Kosovo's population since at least the eighteenth century.A series of massacres of Albanians in the Balkan Wars were committed by the Montenegrin ArmySerbian Army and paramilitariesaccording to international reports.
The goal of the forced expulsions and massacres of ethnic Albanians was a statistic manipulation before the London Ambassadors Conference which was to decide on the new Balkan borders. According to Philip J. Cohenthe Serbian Army generated such fear that some Albanian women killed their own children rather than let them fall into the hands of the Serbian soldiery.
According to the Committee of Kosovo, during this period, around 23 Albanians were killed or died in Serbian, Montenegrin and Greek prisons. According to an Albanian imam organization, there were around 21 simple graves in Kosovo where Albanians had been massacred by the Serb gender armies.
According to newsman William Howard in an interview titled "Let Albanians Starve: They are Mohammmedans", at the New York Globe,the Serbian army carried out modus operandi : " Serb regiments ofled by General Carlos Popovitch, entered Albania with kerosene oil, force pumps and dynamite bombs.
They captured such Albanian men as they could. Then they tied them together by the elbows and shot them down. The women were outraged. I believe that every woman who fell into the hands of the Serb troops fell a victim to them.Free username and password for disney plus
Then they were locked up in the house and bombs planted in the walls. Kerosene oil would be sprayed over all and a fire started. When the flames reached the dynamite, the walls were shattered.
Albania is filled with fire blackened heaps of stones that were once houses ". American relief commissioner Mr Willar Howard stated in an interview with The Daily Mirror in that Popovitch would yell " Dont run away, we are brothers and friends.
We dont mean to do any harm. Howard states that the atrocities were committed after the war had ended.Green card sponsorship repayment agreement
According to the study Yugoslavia from a Historical Perspectivepublished in Belgrade by the Helsinki Committee for Human Rights in Serbiawhen Serbo-Montenegrin forces invaded Kosovo inhavoc was created where villages were burned to ashes, and Albanian Muslims were targeted and many were forced to flee. Some chronicles evidence the atrocities including decapitation and mutilation. The modern Albanian-Serbian conflict has its roots in the expulsion of the Albanians in from areas that became incorporated into the Principality of Serbia.
In midan Albanian revolt resulted in Ottoman recognition of the " 14 points ", a list of demands that included the establishment of an autonomous Albanian vilayet. The Serbian army in the region viewed its role as protecting local Orthodox Christian communities and avenging the medieval battle of Kosovo,  though it forced Catholic Albanians to convert to Orthodox Christianity.
A majority of Albanian historians state that Montenegro, Greece and Serbia did not recognise Albanian autonomy and the cause for the Balkan Wars was to stop its establishment on Ottoman lands they claimed. When the Serbo-Montenegrin forces invaded the Vilayet of Kosovo inmuch of the Albanian population was forced to flee due to the feared and actual violence that they experienced at the hands of the invading armies.
During the Balkan Wars, multiple reports surfaced regarding violent persecutions by Montenegro of Catholic Albanians.In the Second Balkan War, the erstwhile allies fought among themselves for the Ottoman spoils. The Balkan Wars of initiated a period of conflict that ravaged southeastern Europe until and endured there in one form or another into the 21 st century. These Balkan wars originated in the aspirations of the nationalist states of southeastern Europe; having previously achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire during the 19 th century, these states wished to incorporate members of their nationalities remaining under Ottoman rule and thus achieve their maximum nationalist claims.
In this way, the states of BulgariaGreeceMontenegro and Serbia sought to emulate the 19 th century nationalist successes of Germany and Italy. Competing claims to Ottoman held territories, especially Macedoniaprevented the Balkan states from cooperating against the Ottomans. When the Young Turks threatened to reinvigorate the Ottoman Empire after their coup, however, the leaders of the Balkan states sought ways to overcome their rivalries.French 120mm mortar
Russian diplomacy facilitated their efforts. The Russians wanted to compensate for their setback in the Bosnian Crisis of by establishing a pro-Russian Balkan alliance intended to impede any further Austro-Hungarian advances in the region.
In Marchthe Bulgarians and Serbs concluded an alliance under Russian aegis. This agreement contained a plan for the settlement of the Macedonian problem, including a provision for Russian mediation.
The Bulgarians and Serbs then both made individual agreements with the Greeks and Montenegrins, who also reached an agreement together. By September this loose confederation, the Balkan League, was ready to achieve its goals. Montenegro began the First Balkan War on 8 October Before the other allies could join in, the Ottomans declared war on the Balkan League on 17 October.
The main theater of the ensuing conflict was Thrace. The Ottomans rallied at the Chataldzha, the last lines of defense before Constantinople. An attack by the exhausted and epidemic ridden Bulgarians on 17 November against the Ottoman positions there failed. Both sides then settled into trench warfare at Chataldzha. Elsewhere the Serbian army broke the western Ottoman army at Kumanovo on 23 October.
The Serbs then proceeded against diminishing resistance into Macedonia, Kosovo and on through Albaniareaching the Adriatic coast in December. The Greek navy prevented the Ottomans from shipping reinforcements from Anatolia to the Balkans, and occupied the Ottoman Aegean Islands. The Greek army advanced in two directions, entering Salonika on 8 November, and further west, bringing the town of Janina under siege.
Greek military operations continued. By this time, Ottoman Europe was limited to the three besieged towns of Adrianople, Janina, and Scutari, the Gallipoli peninsula and eastern Thrace behind the Chataldzha lines.
As a result of the Ottoman collapse, groups of Albanian notables, supported by Austria and Italy, declared Albanian independence on 28 November While delegations from the Balkan allies attempted to negotiate a final peace with the Ottomans in London, a conference of Great Power ambassadors met in London to ensure that their interests would prevail in any Balkan settlement.
A coup on 23 January returned a Young Turk government to power in Constantinople. This government was determined to continue the war, mainly in order to retain Adrianople. It denounced the armistice on 30 January. Hostilities recommenced, to the detriment of the Ottomans. The siege of Scutari, however, incurred international complications. The Austrians demanded that this largely Albanian inhabited town become a part of the new Albanian state. Under Austro-Hungarian pressure, Serbian forces aiding the Montenegrin siege withdrew.
The Montenegrins persisted in the siege, however, and succeeded in taking the town on 22 April. A Great Power flotilla off the Adriatic coast forced the Montenegrins to withdraw less than two weeks later, on 5 May. Meanwhile in London, peace negotiations resulted in the preliminary Treaty of London, signed on 30 May between the Balkan allies and the Ottoman Empire. By this treaty, the Ottomans Empire in Europe consisted of only a narrow band of territory in eastern Thrace defined by a straight line drawn from the Aegean port of Enos to the Black Sea port of Midya.
During the First Balkan War, while the Bulgarians contended with the major portion of the Ottoman army in Thrace, the Serbs had occupied most of Macedonia. Austrian prohibitions prevented the Serbs from gaining the Adriatic port in northern Albania that they desired.With significant minorities living within its changing borders Albania faced tense relations with all neighbouring countries — Montenegro in the north, Greece to the south and Serbia to the east.
In there were around 1.Neutral Nations of WW1: Albania
In the process some Albanian villages and tribes in the north were assigned to the Montenegrin and Serbian kingdoms, while in the south the district of Yanina was assigned to Greece. The north and south of Albania was mostly wild and inaccessible. Communication was extremely difficult with no railway and no first class road.
Massacres of Albanians in the Balkan Wars
On 26 Aprilin an attempt to induce Italy into the war, the secret Treaty of London was signed by the Allied Powers. On October 11,Bulgaria entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. Bulgarian forces combined with German and Austrian troops completed the conquest of Serbia and large numbers of the defeated Serbian army fled through the mountains to Albanian ports on the Adriatic, from where they could be evacuated. They took with them 25, Austrian prisoners they had captured.
French forces advanced from Salonika in Greece, and in November occupied the southern Albanian province of Koritza. By the end of the year Italian forces from Valona, established a connection with the left wing of the Salonika force.
Austrian forces, reached the vicinity of Valona in late Julyand encountered fierce resistance from the heavily entrenched Italian army.
I should very much like to have them again under my command in battle… The Albanians. At the end of the war Albania was left in chaos and devastation. Around 70, ethnic Albanians had been killed through warfare or disease and the country was in great need of stability, investment and direction.
A memorandum issued in January by the emigrant Albanian community in Egypt laid out the following aspirations:. Subscribe now for regular news, updates and priority booking for events.Louvre museum official website
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